Start Submission Become a Reviewer

Reading: Sea surface freshwater flux estimates from GECCO, HOAPS and NCEP

Download

A- A+
Alt. Display

Original Research Papers

Sea surface freshwater flux estimates from GECCO, HOAPS and NCEP

Authors:

V. Romanova ,

Institute for Oceanography, KlimaCampus, University of Hamburg; Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, 14412 Potsdam, DE
X close

A. Köhl,

Institute for Oceanography, KlimaCampus, University of Hamburg, DE
X close

D. Stammer,

Institute for Oceanography, KlimaCampus, University of Hamburg, DE
X close

C. Klepp,

Meteorological Institute, KlimaCampus, University of Hamburg, DE
X close

A. Andersson,

Meteorological Institute, KlimaCampus, University of Hamburg, DE
X close

S. Bakan

Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, DE
X close

Abstract

Surface net freshwater flux fields, estimated from the GECCO ocean state estimation effort over the 50 yr period 1951–2001, are compared to purely satellite-based HOAPS freshwater flux estimates and to the NCEP atmospheric re-analysis net surface freshwater flux fields to assess the quality of all flux products and to improve our understanding of the time-mean surface freshwater flux distribution as well as its temporal variability. Surface flux fields are adjusted by the GECCO state estimation procedure together with initial temperature and salinity conditions so that the model simulation becomes consistent with ocean observations. The entirely independent HOAPS net surface freshwater flux fields result from the difference between SSM/I based precipitation estimates and fields of evaporation resulting from a bulk aerodynamic approach using SSM/I data and the Pathfinder SST. All three products agree well on a global scale. However, overall GECCO seems to have moved away from the NCEP/NCAR first guess surface fluxes and is often closer to the HOAPS data set. This holds for the time mean as well as for the seasonal cycle.

How to Cite: Romanova, V., Köhl, A., Stammer, D., Klepp, C., Andersson, A. and Bakan, S., 2010. Sea surface freshwater flux estimates from GECCO, HOAPS and NCEP. Tellus A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, 62(4), pp.435–452. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0870.2009.00447.x
2
Views
  Published on 01 Jan 2010
 Accepted on 11 Mar 2010            Submitted on 5 Aug 2009

References

  1. Adler , R. F. , Kidd , C. , Petty , G. , Morissey , M. and Goodman , H. M . 2001 . Intercomparison of global precipitation products: the third precipitation intercomparison project (PIP-3) . Bull. Amer Meteor Soc . 82 , 1377 – 1396 .  

  2. Andersson , A. , Bakan , S. , Fennig , K. , Grassi , H. , Klepp , C. R , and co-authors . 2007 . Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data - HOAPS-3 - monthly mean. World Data Center for Climate, https://doi.org/10.1594/VVDCC/HOAPS3-MONTHLY .  

  3. Andersson , A . 2009 . The HOAPS climatology: evaluation and applications , Ph.D. thesis, Universtä Hamburg, Germany. Berichte zur Erdsystemforschung Nr. 72, Max-Planck-Institut fr Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany. ISSN 1614-1199  

  4. Andersson , A. , Balcan , S. and GraBl , H . 2010 . Satellite derived North Atlantic precipitation and freshwater flux variability and its dependence on the NAO index . Tellus 62A .  

  5. Barnier , B . 1998 . Forcing the ocean. In: Ocean Modeling and Parameterization , (eds. E. P. Chassignet and J. Verron ), Kluwer Academic Publishers , Netherlands , 45 – 80 .  

  6. Bauer , P. , Lopez , P. , Benedetti , A. , Salmond , D. and Moreau , E . 2006 . Implementation of 1D+4D-Var assimilation of precipitation-affected microwave radiances at ECMWF. I: 1D-Var, Quart . J. Roy. Meteor Soc . 132 ( 620 ), 2277 – 2306 .  

  7. Beranger , K. , Barmier , B. , Gulev , S. and Crepon , M . 2006 . Comparing 20 years of precipitation estimates from different sources over the world ocean . Ocean Dyn . 56 , 104 – 138 .  

  8. Beranger , K. , Siefridt , L. , Barmier , B. , Gamier , E. and Roquet , H . 1999 . Evaluation of operational ECMWF surface freshwater fluxes over oceans during 1991-1997 . J. Mar Syst . 22 , 13 – 36 .  

  9. Baumgartner , A. and Reichel , E . 1975 . The World Water Balance . Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and New York, USA, Elsevier, 179 pp .  

  10. Bentamy , A. , Katsaros , K. B. , Alberto , M. , Drennan , W. M. , Forde , E. B. and co-authors . 2003 . Satellite estimates of wind speed and latent heat flux over the global oceans. J. Climate 16 , 637 – 656 .  

  11. Bourras , D . 2006 . Comparison of five satellite-derived latent heat flux products to moored buoy data . J. Climate 19 , 6291 – 6313 .  

  12. Bowman , K. P. , Homeyer , C. R. and Stone , D. G . 2009 . A Comparison of Oceanic Precipitation Estimates in the Tropics and Subtropics . J. Appl. Meteor Climatol . 48 , 1335 – 1344 .  

  13. Chambers , D. , Chen , J. , Nerem , R. and Tapley , B . 2000 . Interannual mean sea level change and the Earth’s water mass budget . Geophys. Res. Lett . 27 ( 19 ), 3073 – 3076 .  

  14. Curry , R. , Dickson , B. and Yashayaev , I . 2003 . A change in the freshwater balance of the Atlantic Ocean over the past four decades . Nature 426 , 826 – 829 .  

  15. Dai , A. and Trenberth , K. E . 2002 . Estimates of freshwater discharge from continents: latitudinal and seasonal variations . J. Hydrometeor 3 , 660 – 687 .  

  16. Fairall , C. W. , Bradley , E. F. , Hare , J. E. , Grachev , A. A. and Edson , J. B . 2003 . Bulk parameterization of air-sea fluxes: update and verification for the COARE algorithm . J. Climate 16 , 571 – 591 .  

  17. Fairall , C. W. , Bradley , E. F. , Rogers , D. R , Edson , J. B. and Young , G. S . 1996 . Bulk parameterization of air-sea fluxes for Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere Coupled-Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment . J. Geophys. Res . 101 , 3747 – 3764 .  

  18. Fekete , B. M. , Vorosmarty , C. J. and Grabs , W . 1999 . An improved global spatially-distributed runoff data set based on observed river discharge and simulated water balance. Unpublished Report, Complex Systems Research Center, University of New, Hampshire, 35pp.  

  19. Ganachaud , A. and Wunsch , C . 2003 . Large-scale ocean heat and freshwater transports during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment . J. Climate 16 , 696 – 705 .  

  20. Gulev , S. K. , Barmier , B. , Knochel , H. , Molines , J. M. and Cottet , M . 2003 . Water mass transformation in the North Atlantic and its impact on the meridional circulation: insights from an ocean model forced by NCAR-NCAR reanalysis surface fluxes . J. Climate 16 , 3085 – 3110 .  

  21. Gulev , K. , Barmier , B. , Molines , J. M. , Penduff , T. and Chanut , J . 2007 . Impact of spatial resolution on simulated surface water mass transformations in the Atlantic . Ocean Modell . 19 , 138 – 160 .  

  22. Huang , R. X. and Schmitt , R. W . 1993 . The Goldsbrough-Stommel circulation of the world oceans . J. Phys. Oceanogr 23 , 1277 – 1284 .  

  23. Janowialc , J. E. , Gruber , A. , Kondragunta , C. R. , Livezey , R. E. and Huffman , G. J . 1998 . A comparison of The NCEP-NCAR reanalysis precipitation and the GPCP rain gauge-satellite combined dataset with observational error considerations . J. Climate 11 , 2960 – 2979 .  

  24. Jourdan , D. , Peterson , P. and Gautier , C . 1997 . Oceanic freshwater budget and transport as derived from satellite radiometric data . J. Phys. Oceanogr 27 , 457 – 467 .  

  25. Josey , S. A. and Marsh , R . 2005 . Surface freshwater flux variability and recent freshening of the North Atlantic in the eastern subpolar gyre . J. Geophys. Res . 110 , C05008 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JC002521 .  

  26. Kalnay , E. , Kanamitsu , M. , Kistler , R. , Collins , W. , Deaven , D. and co-authors . 1996 . The NCEP/NCAR re-analysis project. Bull. Amer Meteor Soc . 77 , 437 – 471 .  

  27. Köhl , A. , Dommenget , D. , Ueyoshi , K. and Stammer , D . 2006 . The global ECCO 1952 to 2001 ocean synthesis. ECCO Report 40, http://www.ecco-group.org/report_series.htm.  

  28. Köhl , A. , Stammer , D. and Cornuelle , B . 2007 . Interannual to decadal changes in the ECCO global synthesis . J. Phys. Oceanogr 37 , 313 – 337 .  

  29. Köhl , A. and Stammer , D . 2008a . Decadal sea level changes in the 50-year GECCO ocean synthesis . J. Climate 21 , 1876 – 1890 .  

  30. Köhl , A. and Stammer , D . 2008b . Variability of the meridional overturning in the North Atlantic from the 50 years GECCO state estimation . J. Phys. Oceanogr 38 , 1913 – 1930 .  

  31. Large , W. and Yeager , S . 2004 . Diurnal to decadal global forcing for ocean and sea ice models: the data sets and flux climatologies. NCAR Technical Note: NCAR/TN-460±STR. CGD Division of the National Center for Atmospheric Research.  

  32. Lazier , J. R. N . 1980 . Oceanographic conditions at Ocean Weather Ship Bravo, 1964-1974 . Atmos. Ocean 18 , 227 – 238 .  

  33. Levitus , S. , Burgett , R. , and Boyer , T. 1994. World Ocean Atlas 1994, Volume 3, Salinity, and Volume 4, Temperature, NOAA Atlas NES-DIS 3 & 4, U.S. Department of Comm., Washington , DC .  

  34. Leung , L. R. , Qian , Y. , Han , J. and Roads , J . 2003 . Intercomparison of global reanalyses and regional simulations of cold season water budgets in the western United States . J. Hydrometeorol . 4 , 1067 – 1087 .  

  35. MacDonald , A . 1998 . The global ocean circulation: a hydrographic estimate and regional analysis . Prog. Oceanogr 41 , 281 – 382 .  

  36. Marshall , J. , Adcroft , A. , Hill , C. , Perelman , L. and Heisey , C . 1997a . A finite-volume, incompressible Navier-Stokes model for studies of the ocean on parallel computers . J. Geophys . 102 , 5753 – 5766 .  

  37. Marshall , J. , Hill , C. , Perelman , L. and Adcroft , A . 1997b . Hydrostatic, quasi-hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic ocean modeling . J. Geophys. Res . 102 , 5733 – 5752 .  

  38. Mehta , V. M. , DeCandis , A. J. and Mehta , A. V . 2005 . Remote-sensing-based estimates of the fundamental global water cycle: annual cycle . J. Geophys. Res . 110 , D22103 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD005672 .  

  39. Röske , F . 2006 . A global heat and freshwater forcing dataset for ocean models . Ocean Modell . 11 , 235 – 297 .  

  40. Rudels , B. , Marnela , M. and Erilcsson , P . 2008 . Constraints on estimating mass, heat and freshwater transports in the Arctic Ocean: An exercise. In: Arctic-Subarctic Ocean Fluxes: Defining the Role of the Northern Seas in Climate , (eds. R. Dickson , J. Meincke and P. Rhines ), Springer, Dordrecht , Netherlands , 315 – 341 .  

  41. Sapiano , M. R. P. and Arkin , P. A . 2009 . An intercomparison and validation of high resolution satellite precipitation estimates with three-hourly gauge data . J. Hydrometeor 10 , 149 – 166 .  

  42. Schinoda , T. , Hendon , H. H. and Glick , J . 1999 . Intraseasonal surface fluxes in the tropical western Pacific and Indian Oceans from NCEP reanalyses. Mon . Wea. Re v . 127 , 678 – 693 .  

  43. Schulz , J. , Schlüssel , P. and Graßl H . 1993 . Water vapor in the atmospheric boundary layer over oceans from SSM/I measurements . Int. J. Remote Sens . 14 , 2773 – 2789 .  

  44. Schlüssel , P . 1995 . Passive Fernerkundung der unteren Atmosphäre und der Meeresoberche aus dem Weltraum. vol. 20 of Berichte aus dem Zentrum für Meeres-und Klimaforschung, Reihe A: Meteorologie, Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstr. 55,20146 Hamburg, Germany, ISSN 0947 – 7128 .  

  45. Schlüssel , P . 1996 . Satellite remote sensing of evaporation over sea. In: Radiation and Water in the Climate System: Remote Measurements, Volume 145 of NATO ASI Series, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 431 – 459 .  

  46. Schmidt , S. and Send , U . 2007 . Origin and composition of sea-sonal Labrador sea freshwater . J. Phys. Oceanogr 37 , 1445 – 1454 .  

  47. Smith , R. D. , Maltrud , M. E. , Bryan , E O. and Hecht , M. W . 2000 . Numerical representation of North Atlantic Ocean at 1/10° . J. Phys. Oceanogr . 30 , 1532 – 1561 .  

  48. Sohn , B. J. , Smith , E. A. , Robertson , F. R. and Park , S. C . 2004. Derived over-ocean water vapor transports from satellite-retrieved E2 P datasets. 17 , 1352 – 1365 .  

  49. Straneo , F . 2006 . Heat and freshwater transport through the central Labrador Sea . J. Phys. Oceanogr 36 , 606 – 628 .  

  50. Schlosser , A. and Houser , R . 2006 . Assessing a satellite-era perspective of the global water cycle . J. Climate 20 , 1316 – 1338 .  

  51. Stammer , D. , Wunsch , C. , Giering , R. , Eckert , C. , Heimbach , P. and co-authors . 2002 . The global ocean circulation during 1992 —1997, estimated from ocean observations and a general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res . 107 ( C9 ), 3118 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JC000888 .  

  52. Stammer , D. , Ueyoshi , K. , Köhl , A. , Large , W. G. , Josey , S. A. and co-authors . 2004 . Estimating air-sea fluxes of heat, freshwater, and momentum through global ocean data assimilation. J. Geophys. Res . 109 , C05023 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JC002082 .  

  53. Swift , C. T. , Fedor , L. S. and Ramseier , R. O . 1985 . An algorithm to measure sea ice concentration with microwave radiometers . J. Geophys. Res . 90 , 1087 – 1099 .  

  54. Talley , L. D . 2008 . Freshwater transport estimates and the global over-turning circulation: shallow, deep and throughflow components . Prog. Oceanogr 78 , 257 – 303 .  

  55. Trenberth , K. E. , Smith , L. , Qian , T. , Dai , A. and Fasullo , J . 2007 . Estimates of the global water budget and its annual cycle using observational and model data . J. Hydrometeor 8 , 758 – 769 .  

  56. Trenberth , K. E. and Guillemot , C. J . 1998 . Evaluation of the atmospheric moisture and hydrological cycle in the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses . Climate Dyn . 14 , 213 – 231 .  

  57. Winterfeldt , J. , Andersson , A. , Klepp , C. P. , Balcan , S. and Weisse , R . 2009 . Comparison of HOAPS, QuilcSCAT and buoy wind speed in the eastern North Atlantic and the North Sea, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens . 47 , https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2009.2023982  

  58. Wijffels , S. E . 2001 . Ocean transport of fresh water, in ocean circulation and climate. In: Observing and Modelling the Global Ocean , (eds. G. Siedler , J. Church and J. Gould ), Academic Press , London , 475 – 488 .  

  59. Wunsch , C . 1996 . The Ocean Circulation Inverse Problem , Cambridge Univ. Press , New York , 442 pp .  

  60. Xie , R , Janowiak , J. E. , Chen , M. , Wang , W. , Shie , C. L. and co-authors . 2007 . Examining fresh water flux over global oceans in the NCEP CDAS, CDAS2, GDAS, GFS, and CFS. In: Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Climate Diagnostics and Prediction Workshop, Tallahassee, FL.  

  61. Yashayaev , I. and Clarke , A . 2008 . Evolution of North Atlantic water masses inferred from Labrador sea salinity series . Oceanography 21 , 30 – 45 .  

comments powered by Disqus