Start Submission Become a Reviewer

Reading: Operational assimilation of GPS slant path delay measurements into the MM5 4DVAR system

Download

A- A+
Alt. Display

Original Research Papers

Operational assimilation of GPS slant path delay measurements into the MM5 4DVAR system

Authors:

Hans-Stefan Bauer ,

Institute of Physics and Meteorology, University of Hohenheim, Garbenstrasse 30, 70599 Stuttgart, DE
X close

Volker Wulfmeyer,

Institute of Physics and Meteorology, University of Hohenheim, Garbenstrasse 30, 70599 Stuttgart, DE
X close

Thomas Schwitalla

Institute of Physics and Meteorology, University of Hohenheim, Garbenstrasse 30, 70599 Stuttgart, DE
X close

Abstract

A forward operator for Global Positioning System (GPS) slant total delay (STD) data and its adjoint were implemented into the Mesoscale Model version 5 (MM5) 4DVAR system to investigate its impact on quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF). An operational forecast system was set up providing two forecasts per day, one driven by ECMWF forecasts only and the other additionally by 4DVAR of GPS STD data.

The investigation of statistics for August 2007 demonstrated a positive impact on the representation of the watervapour field and the diurnal cycle of precipitation in southwest Germany. The spread of observation-minus-model departures was strongly reduced during the first 6 h of the simulations. As compared to the control simulation, the averaged diurnal cycle of precipitation in the 4DVAR integration was closer to observations in spite of the limitations of the 4DVAR system. Especially promising is the almost complete removal of the spin-up at the beginning of the simulation.

This study not only demonstrates the potential of water vapour data assimilation for nowcasting and short-range QPF. It also suggests that improved GPS retrievals and extended networks are important to further improve the forecast performance and demonstrates the potential to apply observation operators for model verification.

How to Cite: Bauer, H.-S., Wulfmeyer, V. and Schwitalla, T., 2011. Operational assimilation of GPS slant path delay measurements into the MM5 4DVAR system. Tellus A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, 63(2), pp.263–282. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0870.2010.00489.x
14
Citations
  Published on 01 Jan 2011
 Accepted on 27 Sep 2010            Submitted on 8 Jan 2010

References

  1. Anthes , R. A . 1977 . A cumulus parameterization scheme utilizing a one-dimensional cloud model. Mon . Wea. Re v . 105 , 270 – 286 .  

  2. Bauer , H.-S. , Weusthoff , T. , Dorninger , M. , Wulfmeyer , V. , Schwitalla , T. , Gorgas , T. , Arpagaus , M. and Warrach-Sagi , K . 2010 . Predictive skill of a subset of the D-PHASE multi-model ensemble in the COPS region . Quart. J. Roy. MeteoroL Soc. (COPS Special Issue) , in press .  

  3. Bauer , H. S. and Wulfmeyer , V . 2009 . Validation od components of the water cycle in the ECHAM4 general circulation model based on the newtonian relaxation technique: a case study of an intense winter cyclone . MeteoroL Atmos. Phys . 104 , 135 – 162 .  

  4. Bender , M. , Dick , G. , Wickert , J. , Ramatschi , M. , Ge , M. and co-authors . 2009 . Estimates of the information provided by GPS slant data ob-served in germany regarding tomographic applications. J. Geophys. Res. 114 , 6303 - 6313 .  

  5. Bender , M. , Dick , G. , Wickert , J. , Schmidt , T. , Song , S. and co-authors . 2008 . Validation of GPS slant delays using water vapour radiometers and weather models. MeteoroL Zeitschrift 17 ( 6 ), 807 - 812 .  

  6. Bender , M. and Raabe , A . 2007 . Preconditions to ground-based GPS water vapour tomography . Ann. Geophysicae 25 , 1727 – 1734 .  

  7. Bengtsson , L. , Robinson , G. , Anthes , R. A. , Aonashi , K. , Dodson , A. and co-authors . 2003. The use of GPS measurements for water vapour determination. Bull. Amer Meteor Soc . 84 , 1249-125 8 .  

  8. Boniface , K. , Ducroq , V. , Jaubert , G. , Yan , X. , Brousseau , P. and co-authors . 2009. Impact of high-resolution data assimilation of GPS zenith delay on mediterranean heavy rainfall forecasting. Ann. Geo-phys . 27 , 2739-275 3 .  

  9. Bossard , M. , Feranec , J. and Otahel , J . 2000 . CORINE land cover techni-cal guide, Addendum 2000. Technical report, EEA, Techincal Report 40, Copenhagen.  

  10. Crewell , S. , Mech , M. , Reinhardt , T. , Selbach , C. , Betz , H.-D. and co-authors . 2008 . The general observation period 2007 within the pri-ority program on quantitative precipitation forecasting: concept and first results. MeteoroL Zeitschrift 17 ( 6 ), 849-866, https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2008/0336 .  

  11. Cucurull , L. , Navascues , B. , Ruffini , G. , ElOsegui , P. , Rius , A. and co-authors . 2000 . The use of GPS to validate NWP systems: the HIRLAM model. J. Atmos. Oceanic TechnoL 17 , 773 - 787 .  

  12. Das , S. , Singh , S. V , Rajagopal , E. N. and Gall , R . 2003 . Mesoscale modelling for mountain weather forecasting over the himalayas . Bull. Amer Meteor. Soc . 84 , 1237 – 1244 .  

  13. Dick , G. , Gendt , G. and Reigber , C . 2001 . First experience with near real-time water vapor estimation in a german GPS network . J. Athmos. and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 63 , 1295 – 1304 .  

  14. Dierer , S. , Arpagaus , M. , Seifert , A. , Avgoustoglou , R. , Dumitrache , R. and co-authors . 2009 . Deficiencies in quantitative precipitation forecasts: sensitivity studies using the COSMO model. MeteoroL Zeitschrift 18 , 631 - 645 , https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2009/0420 .  

  15. Dudhia , J . 1989 . Numerical study of convection observed during the win-ter monsoon experiment using a mesoscale two-dimensional model. J. Atmos. Sc i . 46 , 3077 – 3107 .  

  16. Ebert , E. E. , Dammrath , U. , Wergen , W. and Baldwin , M. E . 2003 . The WGNE assessment of short-term quantitative precipitation forecasts . Bull. Amer. Meteor Soc . 84 ( 4 ), 481 – 492 .  

  17. Eresmaa , R. , Järvinen , H. , Niemeld , S. and Salonen , K . 2007 . Az-imuthal asymmetry in ground-based GPS slant delay observations and their NWP model counterparts . Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss . 7 , 3179 – 3202 .  

  18. Faccani , C., R., E , Pacione , R. , Paolucci , T. , Vespe , V. and co-authors . 2005 . Impact of a high density GPS network on the operational fore-cast. Adv. Geosci . 2 , 73 - 79 .  

  19. FAO 1995. Digital soil map of the world and derived soil properties , Technical Report/, FAO, Rome.  

  20. Fischer , C. , Montmerle , T. , Berre , L. , Auger , L. and Stefanescu , S. E . 2006 . An overview of the variational assimilation in the AL-ADIN/FRANCE NWP system . Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc . 131 , 3477 – 3492 .  

  21. Gauthier , P. and Thepaut , J.-N . 2001 . Impact of the digital filter as a weak constraint in the pre-operational 4DVAR assimilation system of Meteo-France. Mon . Wea. Re v . 129 , 2089 – 2102 .  

  22. Gendt , G. , Dick , G. and Siihne , W . 1999 . GFZ Analysis Center of IGS-Annual report 1998. IGS 1998 Technical Reports pp. 79 - 87. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena .  

  23. Gleckler , P. J. , Taylor , K. E. and Doutriaux , C. 2008. Perfor-mance metrics for climate models. J. Geophys. Res. 113 , D06104 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD008972 .  

  24. Grell , G. A. , Dudhia , J. and Stauffer , R. R . 1995 . A description of the fith-generation penn state/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5) , NCAR Technical Note TN-398±STR , NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO, 80307.122 pp.  

  25. Grzeschik , M. , Bauer , H.-S. , Wulfweyer , V. , Engelbart , D. , Wandinger , U. and co-authors . 2008. Four-dimensional analysis of water-vapor Raman lidar data and their impact on mesoscale forecasts. J. Atmos. Oceanic TechnoL 25 , 1437-145 3 .  

  26. Gustafsson , N . 2007 . Discussion on `4D-Var or EnKF?’ Tellus 59A ( 5 ), 774 – 777 .  

  27. Ha , S. , Kuo , Y.-H. , Guo , Y.-R. and Lim , G.-H . 2003 . Variational assimi-lation of slant-path delay measurements from a hypothetical ground-based GPS network. Part I: comparison with precipitable water as-similation. Mon . Wea. Re v . 131 , 2635 – 2655 .  

  28. Hagemann , S. , Bengtsson , L. and Gendt , G . 2003 . On the determination of atmospheric water vapor from GPS measurements . J. Geophys. Res . 108 ( D21 ), 4678 – 4691 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD003235 .  

  29. Hohenegger , C. and Schär , C . 2007 . Predictability and error growth dynamics on cloud-resolving models. J. Atmos. Sc i . 64 , 4467 – 4478 .  

  30. Hong , S.-Y. and Pan , H.-L . 1996 . Nonlocal boundary layer vertical diffusion in a medium-range forecast model. Mon . Wea. Re v . 124 , 2322 – 2339 .  

  31. Houtelcamer , P. L. , Mitchell , H. L. and Deng , X . 2009 . Model error representation in an operational ensemble Kalman filter . Mon. Wea. Rev . 137 ( 7 ), 2126 – 2143 .  

  32. Houtelcamer , P. L. , Mitchell , H. L. , Pellerin , G. , Buehner , M. , Charron , M. and co-authors . 2005 . Atmospheric data assimilation with the ensemble Kalman filter: results with real observations. Mon. Wea. Rev . 133 , 604 - 620 .  

  33. Huang , X.-Y., Q., X. , Barker , D. M. , Zhang , X. , Michalakes , J. and co-authors . 2009 . Four-dimensional variational data assimilation for WRF: formulation and preliminary results. Mon. Wea. Rev . 137 , 299 - 314 .  

  34. Ide , K. , Courtier , P. , Ghil , M. and Lorene , A. C . 1997 . Unified no-tation for data assimilation, operational, sequential and variational . J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan 75 , 181 – 189 .  

  35. Järvinen , H. , Reima , E. , Vedel , H. , Kirsti , S. , Sami , N. and co-authors . 2007 . A variational data assimilation system for ground-based GPS slant delays. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc . 133 , 969 - 980 .  

  36. Kain , J. S . 2004 . The Kain-Fritsch convective parameterization: an up-date . J. AppL Meteorol . 43 , 170 – 181 .  

  37. Kain , J. S. , Weiss , S. J. , Bright , D. R. , Baldwin , M. E. , Levit , J. J. and co-authors . 2008 . Some practical considerations regarding horizontal resolution in the first generation of operational convection-allowing NWP. Wea. Forecast . 23 , 931 - 952 .  

  38. Kalnay , E. , Li , H. , Miyoshi , T. , Yang , S.-C. and Ballabrera-Poy , J . 2007a . 4D-Var or ensemble Kalman filter? . Tellus 59A ( 5 ), 758 – 773 .  

  39. Kalnay , E. , Li , H. , Miyoshi , T. , Yang , S.-C. and Ballabrera-Poy , J . 2007b . Response to the discussion on “4D-Var or EnKF?” by Nils Gustafsson . Tellus 59A ( 5 ), 778 – 780 .  

  40. Kawabata , T. , Seko , H. , Saito , K. , Kuroda , T. , Tamiya , K. and co-authors . 2007 . An assimilation and forecasting experiment of the Nerima heavy rainfall with a cloud-resolving nonhydrostatic 4-dimensional varia-tional data assimilation system. J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan 85 , 255 - 276 .  

  41. Kerr , Y. H. , Waldteufel , P. , Wigneron , J.-P. , Martinuzzi , J. , Font , J. and co-authors . 2001 . Soil moisture retrieval from space: the Soil Moisture OceanSalinity (SMOS) mission . IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 39 ( 8 ), 1729-1735 .  

  42. Küll , V. and Bott , A . 2009 . Application of the hybrid convection param-eterization scheme HYMACS to different meteorological situations . Atmos. Res . 94 , 743 – 753 .  

  43. MacDonald , A. , Xie , Y. and Ware , R . 2002 . Diagnosis of three dimen-sional water vapor using slant observations from a GPS network. Mon . Wea. Re v . 130 , 386 – 397 .  

  44. Mlawer , E. J. , Taubman , S. J. , Brown , P. D. , Iacono , M. and Clough , S. A . 1997 . Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmospheres: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for the longwave . J. Geophys. Res . 102 , 16663 – 16682 .  

  45. Rawlins , F. , Ballard , S. P. , Bovis , K. J. , Clayton , A. M ., li , D. and co-authors. 2007. The Met Office global four-dimensional variational data assimilation scheme. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc . 133 , 347 - 362 .  

  46. Reisner , J. , Rasmussen , J. and Bruintjes , R. T . 1998 . Explicit forecasting of supercooled liquid water in winter storms using the MM5 mesoscale model . Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc . 124B , 1071 – 1107 .  

  47. Richard , E. , Buzzi , A. and Zängl , G . 2007 . Quantitative precipitation forecasting in the Alps: the advances achieved by the Mesoscale Alpine Programme . Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc . 133 , 831 – 846 .  

  48. Rossa , A. , Nurmi , P. and Ebert , E . 2008 . Precipitation: Advances in Measurement, Estimation and Prediction edition, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 419 – 452 .  

  49. Rotach , M. W. , Arpagaus , M. , Dorninger , M. , Hegg , C. , Montani , A. and co-authors . 2009. MAP D-PHASE: real-time demonstration of weather forecast quality in the Alpine region. Bull. Amer Meteor Soc . 90 , 1321-133 6 .  

  50. Ruggiero , F. H. , Michalakes , J. G. , Nehrkorn , T. , Modica , G. M. , Cerniglia , M. and co-authors . 2002 . Performance of the scalable mesoscale four dimensional variational assimilation system , Tech-nical report , Department of Defense High Performance Computing Modernization Program. UGC 2002, Austin, Texas, U.S.  

  51. Saastamoinen , J . 1972 . Atmospheric correction for troposphere and stratosphere in radio ranging of satellites . In The Use of Artificial Satellites for Geodesy Volume 15 eds S. W. Henriksen , A. Mancini and B. H. Chovitz ). Washington DC American Geophysical Union Geophysical Monograph Series , 247 – 251 .  

  52. Saito , K. , Ishida , J. , Aranami , K. , Hara , T. , Segawa , T. and co-authors . 2007 . Nonhydrostatic atmospheric models and operational develop-ment at JMA. J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan 85B , 271 - 304 .  

  53. Schraff , C. and Hess , R . 2003 . A description of the non-hydrostatic regional model LM. Part BI: data assimilation . LM Documentation 3 . 85 p .  

  54. Schwitalla , T. , Bauer , H.-S. , Wulfmeyer , V. and Aoshima , F . 2010 . High-resolution simulation over central Europe: assimilation experiments with WRF 3DVAR during COPS I0P9c . Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. (COPS Special Issue) , in press .  

  55. Schwitalla , T. , Bauer , H.-S. , Wulfmeyer , V. and Zängl , G . 2008 . Sys-tematic errors of QPF in low mountain regions . Meteorol. Zeitschrift 17 , 903 – 917 .  

  56. Skamarock , W. C. and Klemp , J. B . 2007 . A time-split nonhydrostatic atmospheric model for research and NWP applications. J. Comp. Phys . 3465 -3485. Special issue on environmental modeling.  

  57. Stauffer , D. R. and Seaman , N. L . 1994 . Multiscale four dimensional data assimilation . J. AppL Meteorol . 33 , 416 – 434 .  

  58. Vedel , H. and Huang , X.-Y . 2004 . Impact of ground based GPS data on numerical weather prediction. J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan 82 ( 1B ), 459 - 472 .  

  59. Wang , X. , Barker , D. A. , Snyder , C. and Hamill , T. A . 2008a . A hy-brid ETKF-3DVAR data assimilation scheme for the WRF model. Part I: observing system simulation experiment. Mon . Wea. Re v . 136 , 5116 – 5131 .  

  60. Wang , X. , Barker , D. A. , Snyder , C. and Hamill , T. A . 2008b . A hybrid ETKF-3DVAR data assimilation scheme for the WRF model. Part II: real observation experiments. Mon . Wea. Re v . 136 , 5132 – 5147 .  

  61. Weckwerth , T. M. and Parsons , D. B . 2006 . A review of convec-tion initiation and motivation for IHOP_2002. Mon . Wea. Re v . 134 , 5 – 22 .  

  62. Weckwerth , T. M. , Parsons , D. B. , Koch , S. E. , Moore , J. A. , LeMone , M. A. and co-authors . 2004 . An overview of the international h2o project (1110P_2002) and some preliminary highlights. Bull. Amer Meteor Soc . 85 , 253 - 277 .  

  63. Wee , T.-K. and Kuo , Y.-H . 2004 . Impact of a digital filter as a weak con-straint in MM5 4DVAR: an observing system simulation experiment. Mon . Wea. Re v . 132 , 543 – 559 .  

  64. Wickert , J. and Gendt , G . 2006 . Fernerkundung der Erdatmosphare mit GPS . Promet 32 ( 3/4 ), 176 – 184 .  

  65. Wiener , N . 1949 . Extrapolation , Interpolation and Smoothing of Sta-tionary Time Series Wiener , N. John Wiley , New York .  

  66. WMO 2009. WWRP Strategic Plan 2009 – 2017 . available online: http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/wwrp/new/documents/final_WWRP_SP_6_0ct.pdf .  

  67. Wu , W. , Lynch , A. H. and Rivers , A . 2005 . Estimating the uncertainty in a regional climate model related to initial and lateral boundary conditions . J. Climate 18 , 917 – 933 .  

  68. Wulfmeyer , V. , Bauer , H.-S. , Grzeschilc , M. , Behrendt , A. , Vandenberghe , F. and co-authors . 2006 . Four-dimensional variational assimilation of water vapor differential absorption lidar data: the first case study within IHOP_2002. Mon. Wea. Rev . 134 ( 1 ), 209 - 230 .  

  69. Wulfmeyer , V. , Behrendt , A. , Bauer , H.-S. , Kottmeier , C. , Corsmeier , U. and co-authors . 2008 . The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study: a Research and Development Project of the World Weather Research Program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions. Bull. Amer Meteor. Soc . 89 ( 10 ), 1477-1486, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008BAM52367.1 .  

  70. Xiao , Q. and Sun , J . 2007 . Multiple radar data assimilation and short-range QPF applied to a squall line observed during IH0P_2002. Mon . Wea. Re v . 135 , 3381 – 3404 .  

  71. Xiao , Q. , Zou , X. and Wang , B . 2000 . Initialization and simulation of a land-falling hurricane using a variational bogus data assimilation scheme. Mon . Wea. Re v . 218 , 2252 – 2269 .  

  72. Xue , M. and Martin , W. J . 2006a . A high-resolution modeling study of the 24 may 2002 case during ]HOP. Part I: numerical simulation and general evolution of the dryline and convection . Mon. Wea. Rev . 134 ( 1 ), 149 – 171 .  

  73. Xue , M. and Martin , W. J . 2006b . A high-resolution modeling study of the 24 may 2002 case during IHOP. Part II: horizontal convective rolls and convective initiation . Mon. Wea. Rev . 134 ( 1 ), 172 – 191 .  

  74. Zängl , G . 2002 . An improved method for computing horizontal diffusion in a sigma-coordinate model and its application to simulations over mountainous topography. Mon . Wea. Re v . 130 , 1423 – 1432 .  

  75. Zou , X. , Kuo , Y.-H. and Guo , Y.-R . 1995 . Assimilation of atmospheric radio refractivity using a nonhydrostatic adjoint model. Mon . Wea. Re v . 123 , 2229 – 2249 .  

  76. Zus , E , Grzeschilc , M. , Bauer , H.-S. , Wulfmeyer , V. , Dick , G. and co-authors . 2008 . Development and optimization of the IPM MM5 GPS slant path 4DVAR system. MeteoroL Zeitschrift 17 , 867 - 885 .  

comments powered by Disqus