Start Submission Become a Reviewer

Reading: Diurnal cycle of precipitation amount and frequency in Sweden: observation versus model simu...

Download

A- A+
Alt. Display

Original Research Papers

Diurnal cycle of precipitation amount and frequency in Sweden: observation versus model simulation

Authors:

Jee-Hoon Jeong ,

Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 460, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, SE
X close

Alexander Walther,

Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 460, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, SE
X close

Grigory Nikulin,

Rossby Centre, SMHI, SE-601 76 Norrköping, SE
X close

Deliang Chen,

Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 460, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, SE
About Deliang

Currently on leave.

X close

Colin Jones

Rossby Centre, SMHI, SE-601 76 Norrköping, SE
X close

Abstract

This study investigated the diurnal cycle of precipitation in Sweden using hourly ground observations for 1996–2008. General characteristics of phase and amplitude for the diurnal cycle of precipitation, both in amount and frequency, were identified. In the warm season (April—September), the ‘typical’ afternoon (14–16 LST) peaks are dominant over inland Sweden, whereas late night to early morning (04–06 LST) peaks with relatively weak amplitude are discernable in the east coast along the Baltic Sea. The diurnal variation is almost negligible in the cold season (October—March), due to the weak solar radiation at high latitudes. The variations of convective activity forced by solar heating and modulated by geographical characteristics were suggested as primarily factors to invoke the cycles and spatial variation identified. The observed cycle was compared with the cycle simulated by a regional climate model. The model fairly well captures the spatial pattern of the phase of the diurnal cycle. However, the warm season afternoon peak is simulated too early and too uniformly across the stations, associated with too frequent occurrences of convective rainfall events with relatively light intensity. These discrepancies point to the need to improve the convection parametrization and geographic representation of the model.

How to Cite: Jeong, J.-H., Walther, A., Nikulin, G., Chen, D. and Jones, C., 2011. Diurnal cycle of precipitation amount and frequency in Sweden: observation versus model simulation. Tellus A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, 63(4), pp.664–674. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0870.2011.00517.x
2
Views
26
Citations
  Published on 01 Jan 2011
 Accepted on 26 Jan 2011            Submitted on 31 Jul 2010

References

  1. Andersson , T . 1969 . The diurnal variation of precipitation in Sweden . Geografiska Annaler Series A, Physical Geography . 51 , 176 – 184 .  

  2. Angelis , C. F. and McGregor , G. R . 2004 . Diurnal cycle of rainfall over the Brazilian Amazon . Climate Res . 26 , 139 – 149 .  

  3. Bakkehoi , S. , Oien , K. and Forland , E. J . 1985 . An automatic precipita-tion gauge based on vibrating-wire strain gauges . Nordic Hydrology 16 , 193 – 202 .  

  4. Brier , G. W. and Simpson , J . 1969 . Tropical cloudiness and rainfall related to pressure and tidal variations . Q. J. R. MeteoroL Soc . 95 , 120 – 147 .  

  5. Cuxart , J. , Bougeault , P. and Redelsperger , J. L. 2000 . A turbulence scheme allowing for mesoscale and large-eddy simulations. Q. J. R. MeteoroL Soc. 126 , 1 - 30 .  

  6. Dahlstriim , B . 2006 . Regnintensitet i Sverige-en klimatologisk analys (Storm intensities in Sweden — a climatological analysis) . VA-Forsk , Nr 2006-26 , 1 – 69 .  

  7. Dai , A. and Deser , C . 1999 . Diurnal and semidiurnal variations in global surface wind and divergence fields . J. Geophys. Res . 104 , 31 109-31 125 .  

  8. Dai , A. and Wang , J. 1999 . Diurnal and semidiurnal tides in global surface pressure fields . J. Atmos. Sci . 56 , 3874-389 1 .  

  9. Dai , A . 2001 . Global precipitation and thunderstorm frequencies, Part diurnal variations . J. Clim . 14 , 1112 – 1128 .  

  10. Dai , A. and Trenberth , K. E . 2004 . The diurnal cycle and its depiction in the community climate system model . J. Clim . 17 , 930 – 951 .  

  11. Dai , A. , Lin , X. and Hsu , K.-L . 2007 . The frequency, intensity, and diurnal cycle of precipitation in surface and satellite observations over low-and mid-latitudes . Clim. Dyn . 29 , 727 – 744 .  

  12. Glasbey , C. A. , Cooper , G. and McGeehan , M. B . 1995 . Disaggregation of daily rainfall by conditional simulation from a point-process model . J. HydroL 165 , 1 – 9 .  

  13. Guichard , F. , Petch , J. C. , Redelsperger , J. L. , Bechtold , P. , Chaboureau , J. P. and co-authors . 2004 . Modelling the diurnal cycle of deep precip-itating convection over land with cloud-resolving models and single-column models. Q. J. R. MeteoroL Soc. 130C , 3139 - 3172 .  

  14. Hohenegger , C. , Brocichaus , P. and Schär , C . 2008 . Towards cli-mate simulations at cloud-resolving scales . Meteora Z . 17 , 383 – 394 .  

  15. Jones , C. G. , Willén , U. , Ullerstig , A. and Hansson , U . 2004 . The Rossby Centre Regional Atmospheric Climate Model Part I: Model Clima-tology and Performance for the Present Climate over Europe . Ambio 33 , 199 – 210 .  

  16. Jones , C. G. , Samuelsson , P. and Kjellstriim , E . 2011 . Regional climate modelling at Rossby Centre . Tellus 63A , 1 – 3 .  

  17. Kain , J. S. and Fritsch , J. M . 1993 . Convective parameterizations for mesoscale models: the Kain—Fritsch scheme. In: The Representation of Cumulus Convection in Numerical Models (eds. Emanuel , K. A. and Raymond , D. J. ). American Meteorological Society Monograph, Boston , USA , 246 pp .  

  18. Katz , R. W. and Parlange , M. B . 1995 . Generalizations of chain-dependent processes: application to hourly precipitation . Water Re-sour Res . 31 , 1331 – 1341 .  

  19. Kjellström , E. , Bärring , L. , Gollvilc , S. , Hansson , U. , Jones , C. and co-authors . 2005 . A 140-year simulation of European climate with the new version of the Rossby Centre regional atmospheric climate model (RCA3). In: SMHI Reports Meteorology and Climatology No. 108, 54 pp .  

  20. Kummerow , C. , Barnes , W. , Kozu , T. , Shiue , J. and Simpson , J . 1998 . The tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) sensor package . J. Atmos. Ocean. TechnoL 15 , 809 – 817 .  

  21. Lee , M. I. , Schubert , S. D. , Suarez , M . J., Held, I. M., Kumar, A. and co-authors. 2007. Sensitivity of horizontal resolution in the AGCM simulations of warm season diurnal cycle of precipitation over the United States and Northern Mexico . J. Clim . 20 , 1862– 1881 .  

  22. Lee , M. I. , Schubert , S. D. , Suarez , M. J. , Schemm , J. K. E. , Pan , H. L. and co-authors. 2008. Role of convection triggers in the simulation of the diurnal cycle of precipitation over the United States Great Plains in a general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res. D: Atmos. , 113 , D02111 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD008984 .  

  23. Lenderinlc , G. and van Meijgaard , E . 2008 . Increase in hourly precipi-tation extremes beyond expectations from temperature changes. Nat . Geosc i . 1 , 511 – 514 .  

  24. Nesbitt , S. W. and Zipser , E. J . 2003 . The diurnal cycle of rainfall and convective intensity according to three years of TRMM measure-ments . J. Clim . 16 , 1456 – 1475 .  

  25. Rasch , P. J. and Kristjansson , J. E . 1998 . A comparison of the CCM3 model climate using diagnosed and predicted condensate parameter-izations . J. Clim . 11 , 1587 – 1614 .  

  26. Rio , C. , Hourdin , F. , Grandpeix , J. Y. and Lafore , J. P . 2009 . Shifting the diurnal cycle of parameterized deep convection over land . Geophys. Res. Letters . 36 , L07809 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL036779 .  

  27. Samuelsson , P. , Gollvik , S. and Ullerstig , A . 2006 . The land-surface scheme of the Rossby Centre regional atmospheric climate model (RCA3). In: Report in Meteorology 122 . SMHI, SE-60176 Norrkoping, Sweden, 25 pp .  

  28. Samuelsson , P. , Jones , C. G. , Willén , U. , Ullerstig , A. , Gollvilc , S. and co-authors . 2011 . The Rossby Centre Regional Climate model RCA3: model description and performance. Tellus A 63 , 4 - 23 .  

  29. Sass , B. H. , Rontu , L. , Savijarvi , H. and Räisdnen , P . 1994 . HIRLAM-2 Radiation scheme: documentation and tests. In: HIRLAM-2 Radiation Scheme: Documentation and Tests . SMHI, SE-60176 Norrkiiping, Sweden 43 pp .  

  30. Sato , T. , Miura , H. , Satoh , M. , Talcayabu , Y. N. and Wang , Y . 2009 . Diurnal cycle of precipitation in the tropics simulated in a global cloud-resolving model . J. Clim . 22 , 4809 – 4826 .  

  31. Savijärvi , H . 1990 . Fast radiation parameterization schemes for mesoscale and short-range forecast models . J. AppL MeteoroL 29 , 437 – 447 .  

  32. Shin , D. W. , Cocke , S. and LaRow , T. E . 2007 . Diurnal cycle of precip-itation in a climate model . J. Geophys. Res. D: Atmos . 112 , D13109 https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD008333 .  

  33. Sorooshian , S. , Gao , X. , Hsu , K. , Maddox , R. A. , Hong , Y. and co-authors . 2002 . Diurnal variability of tropical rainfall retrieved from combined GOES and TRMM satellite information. J. Clim . 15 , 983 - 1001 .  

  34. Takayabu , Y. N . 2002 . Spectral representation of rain profiles and di-urnal variations observed with TRMM PR over the equatorial area . Geophys. Res. Lett . 29 , 1584 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2001GL014113 .  

  35. Unden , P. , Rontu , L. , Järvinen , H. , Lynch , P. , CaIvo , J. and co-authors . 2002 . HIRLAM-5 scientific documentation. In: HIRLAM Report. SMHI, SE-60176 Norrkoping, Sweden, 144 pp .  

  36. Uppala , S. M. , Kallberg , P. W. , Simmons , A. J. , Andrae , U. , Bechtold , V. D. C. and co-authors . 2005. The ERA-40 re-analysis. Q. J. R. MeteoroL Soc . 131 , 2961-321 1 .  

  37. Wallace , J. M . 1975 . Diurnal-Variations in precipitation and thunder-storm frequency over conterminous United States. Mon . Weather Re v . 103 , 406 – 419 .  

  38. Wern , L. and German , J . 2009 . Korttidsnederbörd i Sverige 1995-2008. In: Meteorologi, 139/9002 . SMHI.  

  39. Wilks , D. S . 2006 . Statistical Methods in the Atmospheric Sciences . Academic Press, Burlington , MA .  

  40. Woolnough , S.J. , Slingo , J. M. and Hoskins , B. J. 2004. The diurnal cycle of convection and atmospheric tides in an aquaplanet GCM. J. Atmos. Sci. 61 , 2559 - 2573 .  

  41. Yin , S. , Chen , D. and Xie , Y . 2009 . Diurnal variations of precipitation during the warm season over China . Int. J. Climatol . 29 , 1154 – 1170 .  

  42. Zhang , G. J . 2003 . Roles of tropospheric and boundary layer forcing in the diurnal cycle of convection in the U.S. southern great plains . Geophys. Res. Lett . 30 , 2281 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GL018554 .  

comments powered by Disqus